ITU-R International Telecommunication Union – Radio Communication is responsible for development of 5G requirements.
In the year 2015 it give 5G system requirements as IMT 2020.
Then the Technical Specification will be developed by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project).
3GPP has number of releases in which it defines the Technical Specifications (TS).
Once the technical specifications has been defined hardware vendors will develop the equipment according to those specifications.
IMT-advanced drove the design of LTE, LTE Advanced, LTE AP
IMT-2020 drives the design for 5G
3GPP release numbers for 5G
5G phase 1 has been specified in Release 15.
5G phase 2 has been specified in Rel 16.
Usage Scenarios of 5G:
1. eMBB – Enhanced Mobile Broadband
Users are using lot of data. 5G should be able to deliver speeds more than 4G.
2. mMTC: Massive Machine Type Communication.
Here the use case scenario is, in future there might be lots of devices. They might be communicating with each other or with a central server for exchanging data in real time. 5G is designed to handle these kind of traffic.
3. uRLLC: Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications:
This is a very important requirement for 5G.
The connection should be ultra reliable and should be of low latency.
For example: For self driving cars, performing remote operation on human, these communication should have low latency and ultra reliable communication.
There might be applications which uses a combination of above 3 use cases:
For example, Augmented Reality needs both eMBB and uRLLC.
Similarly a smart city would need eMBBand mMTC.
Here we shall see a basic 5G architecture.
5G architecture consist of:
1. UE – User Equipment i.e mobile device
2. NG-RAN: Next Generation RAN:
NG RAN uses 5G NR(New Radio) technology
It is based on gNB. Next Generation Node B.
NR-RAN is also called as access network.
3. 5GC – 5G Core Network.
UE will always communicate with NG-RAN. NG-RAN will communicate with 5GC and UE as shown below:
UE <—-> NG-RAN <—-> 5GC <—> External Data Network.
we shall see in-depth architecture in the next upcoming chapters.
5G Deployment Scenarios:
There are 2 different types of deployment options.
1. 5G NSA – 5G Non Standalone Architecture.
Option 1: The RAN will have Master eNB + secondary gNB and will connect to 4G core network.
Option 2: The RAN will have Master eNB + secondary gNB and will connect to 5G core network.
If a eNB connected to 5G core, then it is called enhanced eNB.
2. 5G SA – 5G Standalone Architecture.
Here RAN will be Master gNB + secondary eNB or gNB and will connect to 5G core Network.
We shall see in-depth deployment scenarios in upcoming chapters.
Changes in the New Air Interface
Flexibility in band sizing
5G Frequency Bands
FR1 450 Mhz to 6000 Mhz (sub 6Ghz)
FR2 24250 Mhz to 52600 Mhz (24Ghz to 53Ghz) (mmWave)
Data Rate requirements for 5G
1. Minimum requirement for eMBB peak data rate are: 20Gbps downlink, 10Gbps uplink.
2. For dense urban eMBB is 100Mbps downlink, 50 Mbps uplink.
3. Minimum latency for user plane is 4ms for UL and 4ms for DL for eMBB.
4. Minimum latency for user plane is 0.5ms for Ul and 0.5ms for DL for uRLLC.
5. Minimum requirement for eMBB and URLLC mobility interruption time is 0ms.
6. User Experience Data rate is 100Mbits/s
7. Spectrum Efficiency 3x which is an increase from 1x of LTE.
8. Mobility/HO: 500Km/Hr
9. Connection Density 10^6 for mMTC